Esoteric Philosopher: Study of the Endless Path of Wisdom

Mars: Her Descher. The Red One.

The Alice Leighton Cleather Basil Crump 1929 attack on Theosophy
Teaching planned by Hierarchy
No further messenger until 1975
Mother of the World
Dear Friends of Humanity and of the Ageless Wisdom
The original Sanskrit root of the Satanic races
Pre Adamic Satanic Races
The Golden Wheel Head Centre
Shigatse and Tda-shi-Hlumpo Monastery
The Forbidden City
Red Caps and Sect Worship
Five India's
The Lotus Sleep
Entrenched with Debt
Cosmic Etheric Vision and Septenary Clairvoyance
HPB: The Hierarchial Link
The Ocean of Reasoning: Tsong Khapa
The Essence of True Eloquence: Tsong khapa
A Golden Lotus Sutra
Three buddhic vestures, three human vehicles.
The Source Measure 43
Third sub plane of the Fifth manasic plane
Initiations and Atomic Matter
Telepathic/Etheric Transmission
Divine Light of the Cosmic Atom
Book of Imperfections
Magnetic power of Master
Formula of Creative Combinations
Golden Rays of the Sun
Radiation of the Master
Etheric plane vibrational frequencies
Cosmic Physical plane vibrational frequencies
Formula of Karmic Mass: Km = mdlc
Differentiated Molecules
Light and Matter United
The 49/I/6 VIOLET/White/Red
Hiawatha: Line of the Red Ray
Zionist Movement: The seperating door
A stand against Soviet Communism
"the central triangle at the heart"
The Race for the Atom Bomb
The Zionist Question Today
Age Of Aquarius @ 1945
Failure to register adequate dynamic incentives
First Ray Magnetic Corruption
Sevenfold Intent to Destroy
Higher and Lower Ray expressions as used by the White and Black Lodges
The Black Master
The Horoscope, Invalid Upon Liberation
Fenian Dynamiters The Clan na Gael
The Fourth Fundamental of the Ageless Wisdom
The Dark Star, Carbonic Gas and the Global Atmosphere
The Jurassic Period and the Lords of the Flame
Manifestation, Withdrawal And Externalization Of Hierarchy
Significance of the year 1945
The Divine Avatars Maitreya Christ, Maitreya Buddha.
A "culture of respect."
Age Of Aquarius & The Years 1900, 1945, and 2035.
Ida, Pingala, and the Central Sushumna.
Fervid Gold And Gold Fever
Colonel H. S. Olcott And Abraham Lincoln
Colonel H. S. Olcott
The Red Rajputs And The Moryan Dynasty
Ozone And Climatic Conditions On Earth
Clouds the Atmosphere and Meteoric Dust
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
"Four Requirements" Refinement of the physical body is an Essential
The Freedom Of The Seven Solar Systems
Shining Face and Alkaid: A minor constellation. One of the Seven.
The Leading Great Rishi and Pleiad, Alkaid And Alcylone
The Law of Solar Union and The Cycle Of Sunship
Seven Rishis, Seven Timekeepers
The 'Sacred Triangle of all-inclusive Force'
Mars: Karttikeya. Agnibhu "fire born."
August Neptune: Arisen over the Horizon
Earth Base, reproduction of third un-named scheme.
Thomas Alva Edison
J.W. Keely, un-conscious Occultist. A "natural-born magician."
Keely, Edison and Tesla.
J.W. Keely and the Vril
Sedna and Xena
The Christ in the KH Letters
Earth Kundilini Base Scheme, Eventual Heart Triangle
Eire : Ireland
Tara And The Druids
Sisera and the Battle Of Megiddo
Root - Sub Races
Rays And Jewels
The Dark Ones
Cycles of Pralaya and the Rise to Sunship in future Kalpas
The Divine Circulatory Flow of the Cosmic Mother/Love
Obsession And Behavioural Problems
Vaisyas and Sudras shall tread the highest path
The School for Warriors
The School of Beneficent Magicians
The Schools of Aspiration and Painful Endeavor
Earth Mercury Anguish Aspiration
"mass intellectual wrong emphasis"
Magnetism, Radiation, Attraction and Repulsion
Austerity And Sternness
The Way of Resistance To Evil
Light or Darkness?
The Five Kumaras Of Manasic Energy
Four Kumaras: The Holy Four
The Ancient Of Days And William Blake
Plato: The Great Thinker
The Blood
Criminality: A Psychic Disease
Labor: a battle with chaos
H.P.B. And The Battle Of Mentana
Fohat, Para-Fohat, Pan-Fohat!
Treason And The Traitor
Jesus/Joshua, Appollonius, Origen.
Bruce Lee: The Worrier Within. The Art of the Soul.
Opinion, from Latin opnr, to think.
Mars: Her Descher. The Red One.
Mt. Everest
The Year 1952
The Year 1936
Poles Of Light And Darkness
Zero Ray
Diamonds Are Forever
Respiration, Prana, Breath, Ozone:
"racial purity"
Intoxicants and Narcotics
The Chohan Hilarion: The Annunciator!
Henry Lewis Stimson
Cosmic Dust
Egypt, Chemi, Kham.
The United States: Banner Of Light Against Totalitarianism
John Law: Corrupt Scottish Financier
New Orleans: Seven Brothers of the Blood
Black Holes@Zero Points, Laya Centers and Gravitation
The Vitrified Forts of Scotland
7x7=49 degrees of the Negative pole and of the Positive pole.
Teachings on the Third Reich
Tamas and Teros
Arhat, Adept, Chohan.
Hatha Yoga
Port Said (br sacd)
Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton. Lord Lytton.
A Christian reflection On the New Age
T. Subba Rao
Hitlers Indian Army
Winston Churchill
Otto von Bismarck and the Realm of the Holy Roman Empire
William Q. Judge
Lord Ripon Governor-General Viceroy of India and Grand Master Mason
Venus, Light Bearer To Earth:
Great Britain/Prydian and Llyn-llion/Lyonness
Gaza Mustafa Kemal Atatrk
Benjamin Disraeli 'Beaconsfield' 1st Earl of
Telepathic Discourse and the Amanuensis
Napolean The Great
The Pancreas
The Spleen, Organ Of Solar Prana
Kashmere: Brahman Mahatma Of the Lunar Race.
The Roman Empire

Mars (6th) - The School for Warriors, or the open grades for soldiers.

Mars will be a mere 56 million kilometres (35 million miles) away from the Earth on Wednesday, for the first time in 60,000 years. The last time it was this close the Earth was in the grip of an ice age.

As millions watch the skies to catch a glimpse of the red planet , BBC News Online looks at how Mars has fascinated us for so long.

On 27 August 2003 at 9.51am GMT the Earth is a mere 56 million kilometres away from Mars, and small telescopes will reveal a red disc with dark markings and white ice caps. For experienced observers, the vital statistics at this time are: magnitude -2.9 and diameter: 25.11 arc seconds. Around this date, Mars rises at about 8.30pm in the constellation of Aquarius, the Water Bearer (see the diagram below). Helpfully, the Moon is new on the 27th, leaving the sky perfectly dark for observing. Opposition (when the Earth is aligned directly between the Sun and Mars) occurs the following day, on 28 August at 5.58pm.

Mars is in a state of obscuration at present. SD. HPB.  

Pralaya - A period of obscuration or repose - planetary, systemic or cosmic. An interlude between two periods of manifestation. TCF 87.

JC: Obscuration the opposite pole of objectivity.    

We need here to remember that it is always pralaya when viewed from below. From the higher vision, that sees the subtler continuously over-shadowing the dense when not in objective manifestation, pralaya is simply subjectivity, and is not that "which is not," but simply that which is esoteric. TCF 130.

At the coming of the Pralaya no human, animal, or even vegetable entity will be alive to see it, but there will be the earths or globes with their mineral kingdoms; and all these planets will be physically disintegrated in the pralaya, yet not destroyed. TCF 175.

Mars - 4th Chain - 4th Globe. TCF 373.

Mars – Just now, during the grave days of the approach of Mars, when the lower past currents are disturbing, we think only about the future. The unprecendented deviations of planets help the awakening of consciousness. The Space is becoming dense, and the ray of Mars will be drowned in the light of the Mother of the World. LMGII 133.
Blessed be the obstacles, they teach us unity and resistance. When these qualities are strengthened by an affirmation by the heart, the armor will also be ready. The armor of Mars was prepared and forged by Vulcan and Venus. Thus the symbol of the wise myth in itself contains the meaning of life. HIER 401.
Mars and Mercury are in the chain of planets which belong to our solar system, as well as many others not yet known to our astronomers. LHRI 439.
Thus, they did not study the recent approach of Mars from the point of view of psychic energy. People repeatedly spoke at that time about the approach of war, but they never thought of observing the condition of the human brain, which had been poisoned by the influence of Mars. Smd3 533.
Mars embodies sixth ray force which leads to idealism, destructive fanaticism frequently, struggle, strife, war, effort and evolution. EA 100.
Unless you are willing to accept the fact that every color ray, as well as every other division of the Cosmos, is an embodied entity on some plane of existence, you will not be able to accept my statement that there is a corresponding plexus to that of the red color zone of the earth, in the entity we term the Red Ray . a cosmic plexus . represented by the planet Mars, as far as it is visible to the human vision,  and  also  another  similar  plexus  or  rather  a  form  of  energy which corresponds to a plexus, on each of the invisible planes. TT 125. Hilarion.
Two of the other non-sacred planets - Mars and Pluto - function in connection with the sacral center (Mars) and the solar plexus (Pluto). EA 79.
Venus and Mars are Father and Mother to the Earth and They are in reality one entity, the feminine part ruling Venus and the masculine part ruling Mars. Therefore the regent of the Red Star, known as Hilarion, and Venus, the ruler of the Blue Star, brought this Earth into existence and are protecting it.
Venus was born immaculately from the ocean. That entity is sometimes known as Aphrodite and Astarte. She is also known as the Goddess of Love, Beauty and Music. At one time Mars was a great sun and when its cycle of sunship ceased it became a planet, and the regent of the Red Ray now rules it. The Earth also has its ruler, but under supervision, direction and protection of the Two in One mentioned.
Venus is the universal feminine principle and gives the Mother touch. Mars is strength and can make and unmake worlds. Both Mars and Venus are mated, and the Two in One watch carefully the progress of the Earth and its humanity. Hilarion. TT2 297.
Behold Migmar,* as in his crimson veils his "Eye" sweeps over slumbering Earth. Behold the fiery aura of the "Hand" of Lhagpa** extended in protecting love over the heads of his ascetics. Both are now servants to Nyima***  left in his absence silent watchers in the night. Yet both in Kalpas past were bright Nyimas, and may in future "Days" again become two Suns. Such are the falls and rises of the Karmic Law in nature. [*Mars.] [**Mercury.] [***The Sun.] Voice HPB.
The Sun, is, according to Nonnus, also "carried," or made to ascend to heaven after her death, where she presides between Mars and Venus, under the name of the Queen of the World, or the universe, [[panbasileia]]; "at the names of which, as at the names of Hathor, Hecate, and other infernal goddesses," "tremble all the demons." SD HPB VolI 401.
Adam-Jehovah, Brahma and Mars are, in one sense, identical; they are all symbols for primitive or initial generative powers for the purposes of human procreation. Adam is red, and so also are Brahma-Viraj and Mars -- god and planet. Water is the blood of the Earth; therefore, all these names are connected with Earth and Water. "It takes earth and water to create a human soul," says Moses.
Mars is identical with Kartikeya God of War (in one sense) -- which god is born of the Sweat of Siva, Siva Gharmaja and the Earth. In the Mahabharata he is shown as born without the intervention of a woman. And he is also called "Lohita," the red, like Adam, and the other "first men." Hence, the author of "The Source of Measures" is quite right in thinking that Mars (and all the other gods of like attributes), "being the god of war and of bloodshed, was but a secondary idea flowing out of the primary one of shedding of blood in conception for the first time. SD HPB Vol2 44.
Red is the colour of K ma and corresponds with Mars. SDIII HPB 477.
VI    Lunar Lords
    Sacrificial Fires
    (C.F. 378)
    6. Sagittarius
    Planet - Mars
    Color - Red
    Energy of matter
    Astral Plane  EA.  DK.

Ray 6 - Cancer and Sagittarius, through Neptune and Mars. EA DK.
At the third initiation, the Moon (veiling a hidden planet) and Mars bring about a fearful conflict, but at the end the man is released from personality control. EA 71.
The Planetary Ruler of a Hierarchy - In this particular case, this planet is Mars, ruling the sixth Creative Hierarchy, the lunar Lords (the elementals of the threefold personality) who have to be brought under the control of the solar Lord. EA 187.
I am exceedingly anxious that in these days wherein the influence of Scorpio and of the planet Mars is so strongly felt in world affairs that true insight may be cultivated, optimism and understanding developed and the nature of the tests to which the world disciple, humanity, is today being subjected may be estimated at their true value and thus light be shed upon the way of man. Only through understanding will solution come and rectification of error be achieved. EA 203.
Mars and Mercury control and Mars is particularly active, owing to the fact that Mars is both the orthodox planet controlling the personality in Scorpio and also the esoteric planet conditioning the unfoldment of the disciple. Mars is the dominating factor in the tests and trials of the disciple, prior to the experience in Sagittarius and the initiation in Capricorn, and this for the following reasons:
First, Mars is definitely the planet which rules and controls the physical vehicle. Mars appears first of all as the orthodox ruler in Aries, the sign in which the first move is made towards bringing about objective manifestation, or physical incarnation. In Scorpio, the result of all the struggles carried forward during the seemingly endless pilgrimage around the zodiac or wheel of life is brought to a point of climax, again through the activity of Mars which has not appeared actively in the intervening signs between Aries and Scorpio as far as the reversed wheel is concerned. The disciple has now to demonstrate the strength, character and quality which he has unfolded and developed within himself during his long pilgrimage. He started in Aries with Mars ruling, and the great war between the dualities which constitute the man began.
The pairs of opposites were thus brought into relation with each other. In Scorpio, with the same planet ruling his interior life, the war is on and in this case Mars rules not only the physical body but the entire form vehicle, which we call the personality in the three worlds. All aspects of the lower nature are involved in this crisis, for Mars is the esoteric ruler in Scorpio and the tests applied involve the form nature - gross and subtle, integrated and potent. Mars, therefore, rules Aries from the orthodox angle and Scorpio esoterically, and does not again appear in the life of the individual except as that individual responds to mass vibration in Sagittarius, where Mars appears as ruling the sixth Creative Hierarchy, the lunar lords of the form nature who must eventually be sacrificed to the higher spiritual aspect and brought under the control of the solar Angel.
The effect of Mars is, therefore, largely mass effect and group results, producing great struggles but leading finally to great revelation. In Aries, it is the final revelation of the nature of knowledge and the purpose of incarnation; in Scorpio, it is the revelation of the vision of liberation and service; in Sagittarius, it is the revelation of the purpose of soul control over the lower kingdoms in nature, via the human center of energy. It must consequently never be forgotten that Mars establishes relations between the opposites and is a beneficent and not a malefic factor, as is so often supposed.
When we come to study the Hierarchies and their relation to the signs, certain points which are at present obscure will be clarified. This we shall do when dealing with our final point in this section upon astrology and the rays. We shall then find that Scorpio rules and governs the fourth Creative Hierarchy, the human from the angle of the soul and not from the angle of the lower nature. The final struggle in Scorpio only takes place when the point of balance between soul and body has been reached in Libra and it is in Scorpio that the preponderance of the spiritual energy is imposed upon the lower personal forces. Scorpio governs "the initiates," which is the true esoteric name of man, and through its hierarchical planetary ruler, the Sons of Mind, the Messengers of Deity are revealed, but it is through Mars and the Martian activity that the revelation comes about.  
Secondly, Mars is closely related to sex, which is an aspect of the pairs of opposites, and its effect is also definitely to vitalize the blood stream; it vitalizes, purifies and stimulates all aspects and organisms in the body, via the blood stream. It will be obvious to you, therefore, how the tests in Scorpio and the activity of Mars are potent to arouse the entire lower nature and bring about its final rebellion and the last stand, so to speak, of the personality against the soul. It is Mars who brings the world Arjuna into the active fight. The whole man is then engaged and the "quarrel of the sexes" is resolved in its highest aspect through the battle between the highly developed personality or form nature and the soul which seeks to be the ultimate controlling factor.
The color assigned to Mars is, as you know, red and this is a correspondence to the color of the blood stream and hence also the association of Mars with passion, with anger and a sense of general opposition. The sense of duality is exceedingly powerful. Hence also the necessity for the entire life of man (for the blood is the life in this sense) to be swung into the conflict, leaving no side of human nature uninvolved; hence again the need for the disciple to carry his physical nature, his emotional or desire nature and his mental processes up into heaven. This takes place as a consequence of overcoming the "serpent of evil" (the form nature with its promptings and demands) by the means of the "serpent of wisdom," which is the esoteric name oft given to the soul. EA 212.
Thirdly, Mars governs the senses which are five in number. These senses are the basis of all human knowledge where that which is tangible and objective is concerned or inferred. Mars, therefore, rules science and hence the reason in this present era for the fundamental but not permanent materiality of science - a materiality which is rapidly lessening as Mars nears the end of its present cycle of influence. Already, the trend of modern science is shifting into the realm of the intangible and into the world of the non-material.
Hence also the fact that the opposition to occultism is waning and its day of power approaching. These subtler senses will supersede the physical senses over which Mars has so long had a successful control, and hence again the growth in the world today of the psychic senses and the appearance on every hand of the subtler and more esoteric powers of clairvoyance and clairaudience. This development is inevitable as the influence of Scorpio and of Mars begins to lessen, as is the case today. The year 1945 saw this influence almost completely vanish, particularly from the astral plane. EA 216.
The power of Mars is lessened in Libra; this is the sign of interlude and Mars is temporarily quiescent, prior to gathering his forces for a renewed effort in Scorpio or for the "quickening" of the spiritual life in Virgo, according to which way the wheel is turning for the man.  EA 250.
The Planet Mars. Reference in The Secret Doctrine:     
In answer to the questions: "What planets of those known to ordinary science, besides Mercury, belong to our system of world...," the reply was Mars and four other planets of which astronomy knows nothing. The inference is that these planets, A. B. and  Y.Z. exist in etheric matter. (Vol. I, 187)
"As to Mars, Mercury and the 'four other planets,' they bear relation to the Earth of which no Master...will ever speak..." (Vol. I, 187)     
Mars is in a state of obscuration at present       
Mars has two satellites to which he has no right. (astral and mental. A.A.B.)         
Mars is a septenary chain. (Vol. I, 188-189)       
Mars was the Lord of birth, of death, of generation and destruction. (Vol. II, 410)      Mars was called the six-faced planet. (Vol. II, 399)   
References in A Treatise on Cosmic Fire :    
There is a... "triangle formed by the Earth, Mars and Mercury. In connection with this triangle the analogy lies in the fact that Mercury and the center at the base of the spine in the human being are closely allied." (C.F. 181)    
"Mercury, Mars, and the Earth are closely allied with these three (Venus, Jupiter and Saturn)" (C.F. 299)   
Mercury demonstrates kundalini in intelligent activity, while Mars demonstrates kundalini latent. The truth lies hid in their two astrological symbols. In transmutation and planetary geometrizing, the secret may be revealed."    ..."Just as in connection with our planetary Logos, the three etheric planets of our chain - Earth, Mercury and Mars - form a triangle of rare importance. EA 668.
Mars (6th) - The School for Warriors, or the open grades for soldiers. Four of these planetary schools are responsible for the energy flowing through the 'four castes' in all parts of the world. Its teachers, ore spoken of as 'Graduates of the Ruddy Flame' are frequently portrayed as clothed in red robes...They work under the first logoic aspect and train those whose work is along the lines of the destroyer. TCF 695.
Three fifths of the present humanity, being on the Probationary Path, or the Path of Initiation, at that time, will have their center of consciousness definitely on the mental plane, whilst two fifths will remain focused on the astral. There two fifths will pass into temporary pralaya, preparatory to their transference to another scheme, as the Earth scheme will no longer provide for them an adequate place of nurture.    
Entities will come in from Mars to the Earth scheme, and will there find their necessary field of endeavor. TCF 391. 
Esoterically speaking, the vegetable kingdom is upon an advanced stage of the path of discipleship, and hence Saturn and Mars are active. The influence of the latter planet is to be seen in the prevalence of the colors red, rose, yellow and orange in the flowers at this time. Again, readers would find it interesting to note mentally the relation of growth to the idealism of the sixth ray. They could learn therefrom the part that the Ray of Devotion plays in bringing about the urge to evolve. It is growth towards an ideal, or towards a divine prototype or archetype. Here is where the secret of this kingdom appears. The secret is hidden in the word "transformation," for the rays 2.4.6 are the great transformers. EPI 247. 
Hearing - is the keynote of the evolution proceeding at this time on Mars. It is spiritual telepathy and knowledge.  EPII.  585. 
Jeremy Condick.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and is commonly referred to as the Red Planet. The rocks, soil and sky have a red or pink hue. The distinct red color was observed by stargazers throughout history. It was given its name by the Romans in honor of their god of war. Other civilizations have had similar names. The ancient Egyptians named the planet Her Descher meaning the red one.

Before space exploration, Mars was considered the best candidate for harboring extraterrestrial life. Astronomers thought they saw straight lines crisscrossing its surface. This led to the popular belief that irrigation canals on the planet had been constructed by intelligent beings. In 1938, when Orson Welles broadcasted a radio drama based on the science fiction classic War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells, enough people believed in the tale of invading Martians to cause a near panic.

Another reason for scientists to expect life on Mars had to do with the apparent seasonal color changes on the planet's surface. This phenomenon led to speculation that conditions might support a bloom of Martian vegetation during the warmer months and cause plant life to become dormant during colder periods.

In July of 1965, Mariner 4, transmitted 22 close-up pictures of Mars. All that was revealed was a surface containing many craters and naturally occurring channels but no evidence of artificial canals or flowing water. Finally, in July and September 1976, Viking Landers 1 and 2 touched down on the surface of Mars. The three biology experiments aboard the landers discovered unexpected and enigmatic chemical activity in the Martian soil, but provided no clear evidence for the presence of living microorganisms in the soil near the landing sites. According to mission biologists, Mars is self-sterilizing. They believe the combination of solar ultraviolet radiation that saturates the surface, the extreme dryness of the soil and the oxidizing nature of the soil chemistry prevent the formation of living organisms in the Martian soil. The question of life on Mars at some time in the distant past remains open.

Other instruments found no sign of organic chemistry at either landing site, but they did provide a precise and definitive analysis of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and found previously undetected trace elements.


The atmosphere of Mars is quite different from that of Earth. It is composed primarily of carbon dioxide with small amounts of other gases. The six most common components of the atmosphere are:

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 95.32%
  • Nitrogen (N2): 2.7%
  • Argon (Ar): 1.6%
  • Oxygen (O2): 0.13%
  • Water (H2O): 0.03%
  • Neon (Ne): 0.00025 %

Martian air contains only about 1/1,000 as much water as our air, but even this small amount can condense out, forming clouds that ride high in the atmosphere or swirl around the slopes of towering volcanoes. Local patches of early morning fog can form in valleys. At the Viking Lander 2 site, a thin layer of water frost covered the ground each winter.

There is evidence that in the past a denser martian atmosphere may have allowed water to flow on the planet. Physical features closely resembling shorelines, gorges, riverbeds and islands suggest that great rivers once marked the planet.

Temperature and Pressure

The average recorded temperature on Mars is -63 C (-81 F) with a maximum temperature of 20 C (68 F) and a minimum of -140 C (-220 F).

Barometric pressure varies at each landing site on a semiannual basis. Carbon dioxide, the major constituent of the atmosphere, freezes out to form an immense polar cap, alternately at each pole. The carbon dioxide forms a great cover of snow and then evaporates again with the coming of spring in each hemisphere. When the southern cap was largest, the mean daily pressure observed by Viking Lander 1 was as low as 6.8 millibars; at other times of the year it was as high as 9.0 millibars. The pressures at the Viking Lander 2 site were 7.3 and 10.8 millibars. In comparison, the average pressure of the Earth is 1000 millibars.

Mars Statistics
Mass (kg) 6.421e+23
Mass (Earth = 1) 1.0745e-01
Equatorial radius (km) 3,397.2
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 5.3264e-01
Mean density (gm/cm^3) 3.94
Mean distance from the Sun (km) 227,940,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 1.5237
Rotational period (hours) 24.6229
Rotational period (days) 1.025957
Orbital period (days) 686.98
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 24.13
Orbital eccentricity 0.0934
Tilt of axis (degrees) 25.19
Orbital inclination (degrees) 1.850
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 3.72
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 5.02
Visual geometric albedo 0.15
Magnitude (Vo) -2.01
Minimum surface temperature -140C
Mean surface temperature -63C
Maximum surface temperature 20C
Atmospheric pressure (bars) 0.007
Atmospheric composition
Carbon Dioxide (C02)
Nitrogen (N2)
Argon (Ar)
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Water (H2O)
Neon (Ne)
Krypton (Kr)
Xenon (Xe)
Ozone (O3)


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